Texts are edited in accordance with the client’s specifications. This applies to, among other things, the type of English (UK or US), specific spelling choices, various matters of style (serial comma, en or em dashes, etc.) and, where applicable, the reference system (author–date, footnote–bibliography, etc.).

Texts are edited using Track Changes, which means that the original text itself remains unaltered—the client is free to accept or reject the changes we recommend. Comments addressed to the author or client are inserted where necessary (for example, in cases where we are unsure about the intended meaning).

Editing is carried out in ‘rounds’, each round involving the complete correcting of the text. In some cases, a single round of editing may suffice to meet the client’s needs. The text is thoroughly edited and then returned to the client. The final steps are then in the hands of the client, although we remain available to answer any questions that may arise.

In many cases, however, one round is not sufficient. It is the client who processes (accepts or rejects) the changes we recommend in Round 1. This can be a complicated matter, especially for longer or more complicated texts. Therefore, in many cases, the client chooses to return the text to us after this processing so then we can check the text and ensure not only that this has been done correctly, but that no new errors have been introduced.

Finally, where proofs are produced as part of the publishing process, a third round (the proofreading round) is added. Here we check the text itself (much as will have been done in Round 2) and check to ensure that the proofs have been made up correctly. The proofreading proof is done in the case of texts that are to be formally published: especially books, journals and (research) papers that are to be published as free-standing works. When three rounds are carried out, there are always at least two members of the editing team involved.

Here is more information on the different options available.


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